Appel à communication : « Words and Concepts » — CIHA (Pékin, 15-22 Septembre 2016)

CIHASession du Congrès International du CIHA

Starting with the difference of the term “art” we want to look at the wide field of linguistic terms, to explain the significance and meaning by the relaying cultural determination. Important differences are to be expected between the western and the eastern world, languages with an alphabet and logographic and morphemic systems.
Which representations are linked to the terms, which functions, ideologies and cultural relation are linked to the term? Taking into account that the understanding of the term “art” is not only linked to the way how language is use and expressed, but as well to a deeper understanding of culture and it historical development, we would like to direct the discussion to the following fields of reflection:

The different etymologies of the term “art” in the diverse languages are not only a difference of terminology. Moreover they refer to different origins and therefore to different meanings. This includes differences of what is related to the term, differences of traditions and culture.
While in one language one term is sufficient, other languages use several. However, each term includes its own concept. The differences are not only of importance within one language.
Moreover they refer to the different meanings of the term. The right expression connects always with a given context as well as with a special complexion of meaning. The Term and its Content Within the diverse terms one can find the diverse conception of art. They result from the different traditions. The difference of the term “art” relates to the idea of the work, the concept of the work and the technic of the work, i. e. the craftwork. Differences are just given through the possibility producing an artwork and the skill necessary to produce an artwork.
An artwork exists by its concept as well as by its material realization. Therefore we have to make a difference between the intellectual, spiritual and material side of an artwork. The difference of meaning within the terms related to art becomes especially evident in compositions such applied arts, performing arts or decorative arts. They all refer to different conceptions of art. Context The meaning of art, its functions and ideas, its relation to nature and reality depends on time and space. We find different concepts in different regions and at different times. Moreover the meaning of art changes continuously. The most important examples include mimetic art and the concept of mimesis, then art as idealization of nature and finally concepts of art, which refer to reality.

Within the 20th century we observe in the Western world several changes of paradigm. Now art follows more and more a purpose on its own, such as l’art pour l’art. Concepts of Art Following André Malraux art is just a determination. Objects become art, as soon as they are transferred from their original context into the museum. Liberated from common use, from any practical handling and function, they can be nothing else but art. Throughout history various periods specify the term “art” in different ways and link it to various concepts. This question may refer to space as well as to time.

Term and Technology 
Of interest is the relation between the term “art” and the related technology. For example the Russian expression of painting an icon is “pisat ikony”, which means literally “to write an icon”. Which conception of work and its meaning are linked to such expression? In this context research on influences of technic on the coining of the term “art” will be of interest. Research on the term “art” may also address the relation between art and nature. Common sense states that art is men made. But alternatives concepts were developed as well. How than do we have to understand the Russian „ne rukodwornij“, or “autopoiesis”.

Westernization and other Forms of Historical Development 
The difference of terms becomes obvious within the Chinese Culture. In various periods of ancient China art was not only linked to different terms such as yi—?shu and shu—?shu—?fang—?ji, above all their meaning differed from everything linked to the term “art” in Western cultures. Even if the process of westernization has lasted quite long, only since the second half of the 19th century a modern term of art has been introduced in China. But replacing the traditional Chinese art terms has given rise to problems: Even if these terms are able to explain phenomenon similar to the West, they cannot explain the specificities of Chinese art. Similar processes have occurred in other cultures, may be under the influences of colonization and westernization.

Globalization and Nationalization 
Focusing on different concepts of art the question of a global art must be taken in account. Are the different concepts of art, especially in their relation to nations, traditions and countries, are not averse to any form of globalization? Does globalization not require a universal understanding of the term art? And how such an universalization can take into account the variety of culture, religion and tradition linked to art? They become of special interest with an engaged art, such as social and political orientated art. How can engaged art be considered as art? And how can an art, following this definition, be global? Another point of interest will be reflections on the term “art” in the conflict of globalization and nationalism. Do the various conceptions of the term “art” and the meaning related to each of them contradict globalization? Does globalization demand a term of art, which will be understood everywhere in the same sense, notwithstanding differences in culture, history and tradition. The topics described above point to some ideas treating term and content of art in its different and widely differing areas.

For the section we expect contribution from linguistic and cultural studies. Results may be from researchers on the linguistic terms of art and the influence of the cultural historical and political contexts. The question may direct to the impact of cultural influence on the meaning and content of the term “art”. They may derive form technic, idea or craft. Other ideas related to words and concepts of the term art are welcome.

Chairs of the Session: Viola HildebrandSchat, Goethe Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

WANG Yong (Mr.), National Academy of Art China, Beijing, China

CHEN Liang (Junior Chair, Mr.), Universität Heidelberg

Please submit the abstract of your paper for this session to the chairs before June 30, 2015.



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